News: Now available. Proceedings of the Chelmsford Conference £15. A review of recent archaeology in Essex. Our Annual Report 2014 may be viewed online. Members of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History may subscribe to digital downloads of our back catalogue of publications. Use Contact Form for more information.

Friday, 30 November 2012

'Essex Society for Archaeology and History' now on Twitter

The Essex Society for Archaeology and History continues its quest for Internet dominance by adding Twitter to its output.  I smile at the thought of what our predecessors would have made of all this technology.  Follow us on twitter.com/ESAH160.

ESAH Forum: Field Studies Council programme

Olympic Park, Stratford.  Day 4 (early) of the Games. 31 July 2012
One Field Studies Council course considers the legacy of the Park.
Mel Cousins (details below) writes: 

"The Field Studies Council (FSC) have recently launched their new programme of 2013 courses, which includes a range of Local History, Archaeology and Walking and Natural History courses.  We are an environmental education charity with 70 years’ experience of providing courses which inspire people of all ages about the natural world. 

"Courses are based in and around the stunning locations of our Centres across the UK.  Whichever location you choose, from the Scottish Highlands to the south Devon coast, all are in areas with beautiful surroundings, landscapes, buildings and wildlife to explore and discover more about.  There are a range of one-day courses and short residential breaks, which are all led by experienced and passionate individuals with an excellent knowledge of their local area."

ESAH160 spotted that the programme contains items of Essex interest too.



"If you would like to request any hard copies of the brochures please contact me or complete the online Request a Brochure form."

Mel Cousins
Marketing Assistant
Field Studies Council
Head Office, Preston Montford, Montford Bridge
Shrewsbury, SY4 1HW              

Thursday, 29 November 2012

Transactions Transcriptions: 'New Series' Volume 3

Thaxted: Morris Dancing weekend 2011

Transactions transcriptions – Part 3

To increase our online presence, one of the goals of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History is to provide more information on the many thousands of pages of articles which have been produced over its 160 year history.  Online contents lists and indexes do not exist at the present time but other external sites have downloaded text.  Although digitisation is not prefect it is better than no thing!.  So to plagiarise back our own work – now out of copyright – the following is available.

Transactions. n.s. (Series 2) Volume 3.

Text only version
Online digitised version
http://archive.org/stream/transactionsess10socigoog#page/n5/mode/2up

Contents 
Volume III, Part I

I.               Colchester Castle. By F. M. Nichols ... 1 (view online: Part 1 http://esah160.blogspot.co.uk/2013/10/colchester-castle-1-transactions-ns.html  Part 2 http://esah160.blogspot.co.uk/2013/10/colchester-castle-2-transactions-ns.html )
II.              Inventories of Church Goods, 6th Edw, VI {Concluded from Vol, II, p. 250, N.S.) [Havering Liberty: Romford, Hornchurch, Havering. Hundred of Lexden: Aldham, Great Horkesley, Messing, Feering, Dedham, Colne Engaine, Pontisbright (Chappel), Pattiswick, Great Bentley, Wivenhoe, Great Tey. Hundred of Tendring: Dovercourt, Mistley.  Chelmsford Hundred: Sandon, Saffron Walden.] By H. W. King ... 36 
III.           The Ancient Church Bells of Halstead and its Neighbourhood,  By the Rev. Cecil Deedes, M.A. ... 64 
IV.          The Will of Miles Gray [1649], of Colchester, Bell Founder, By J. C.L. Stahlschmidt …  74 
V.            On an Ancient Mazer at Holy Trinity Church, Colchester, By Henry Laver. ... 76  (view online: http://www.esah160.blogspot.co.uk/2013/10/on-ancient-mazer-at-holy-trinity-church.html )
VI.          On the Antiquity of some Footpaths, By Henry Laver ... 76
Annual General Meeting at Colchester, 1st and 2nd August, 1882 [includes a note on the Harsnett Library in Colchester Museum].  ... 81 
Excursion [Chappel, Colne Priory, Great Tey church, Little Tey church, Coggeshall church and abbey, Marks Tey, Copford, Stanway], 2nd of August, 1882 … 85
Annual General Meeting at Nasing [Nazeing] and Waltham Abbey, 9th of August, 1883 ... 96 
Annual General Meeting at Halstead, 29th of July, 1884 [includes an account of the bells in some of the parishes in the northern part of the County of Essex: Ashden, Debden, Elsenham, Henham, Hadstock, Hempstead, Radwinter, Newport, Widdington, Stanstead Montfitchet, Thaxted, Wimbish, Saffron Walden; Visit to Little Maplestead and Great Maplestead churches, Hedingham Castle]… 98
Report Read and adopted at the Annual General Meeting at Colchester, 11th August, 1885  ... 114 
Summary of Proceedings at Council Meetings … 116
 
Archaeological Intelligence … 118
Distemper paintings at Fingringhoe
The Church Bells of Essex
 
Donations to the Society … 121
 
 
Volume III, Part II

VII.        Roman Roads near to and those radiating from Colchester, By Henry Laver ... 123 
VIII.      On a Roman Villa at Arlesford Lodge, Excavated, June, 1885. By Henry Laver … 136 
IX.           Roman Tesselated Pavement, found on the east side of Head Street, Colchester.  By Henry Laver … 140 
X.             Note on a Statement in page 280, Vol, II, No, 8, of the Transactions [Altar of Sulerve by J E Price], By C. Roach Smith ... 141 
XI.           Some Documents Relating to Colchester Castle, By J. Horace Round... 143 
XII.         An Inventory of the household Goods of Sir Thomas Barrington, Bart., at Hatfield Priory , in 1629. By G. Alan Lowndes, Esq., M.A., President ... 155 
Meeting of the Members of the Essex and Chelmsford Museum, and the Essex Archaeological Society at Chelmsford on Thursday, November 27th 1884 ... 177 
Annual General Meeting at Colchester, 11th August, 1885 ... 179 
Special Meeting at Colchester Castle with Excursion to Fingringhoe and Wivenhoe, on Wednesday 14th October, 1885 ... 180 
 
Reviews of Books: 
Retrospections, Social and Archaeological. By Charles Roach Smith, F.S.A., &c., &c. Vol, II, London, George Bell & Sons, York Street, Covent Garden ... 183 
The Manuscripts of the Custos Rotulorum and Justices of the Peace of the County of Essex, at the Shire Hall, Chelmsford, Co. Essex  ... 185 
 
Report Read and Adopted at the Annual Meeting at Ingatestone, 1886 ... 191 
Summary of Proceedings at Council Meetings ... 192 
Donations to the Society … 194 
 
 
Volume III, Part III

XIII.       Common Seal of the Borough of Colchester, By Henry Laver  ... 197 
XIV.      On Pargeting, By the Rev. E. S. Corrie, M.A. ... 201 
XV.        Roman Tessellated Pavement found in [Culver Street, near Head Street] Colchester, By Henry Laver ... 207 
XVI.      Wentworth, of Gosfield, Co, Essex, By Wm. Loftie Rutton ... 209 
XVII.    Pedigree of Wentworth, of Gosfield, Co, Essex. By Wm. Loftie Rutton ... 221 
XVIII.  Pedigree of Wentworth, of Bocking, Co, Essex, By Wm. Loftie Rutton ... 222
XIX.       Notes to the Pedigree of Wentworth of Gosfield ... 223 
XX.         Manors of Wentworth, of Gosfield  ... 228 
XXI.       Excerpts from Ancient Wills, No. 4. [William Creake, Vicar of Barling, proved 1393; Ralph Perchehay, Rector of Stifford, dated 1377; and his successor, John Colyn, proved 1392] By H. W. King. … 230 
XXII.     Robert Burford [d. 1418], of London, Bellfounder. By J. C. L. Stahlschmidt ... 238 
Report Read at the Annual General Meeting at Great Dunmow, August 12th, 1887 ... 241 
Donations to the Society ... 242 
 
Volume III, Part IV

XXIII.   Who was Alice [de Vere] of Essex?   By J. Horace Round, M. A. … 243
XXIV.  Tilty Parish and Abbey, By the Rev. G. E. Symonds, M.A. ... 252 
XXV.    Thaxted and its Cutlers' Guild. By the Rev. G. E. Symonds, M.A. ... 255 
XXVI.  Thaxted Church. By the Rev. G, E. Symonds, M.A. ... 262
XXVII.The Origin of St. Botolph's Priory, Colchester. By J. H. Round ... 267
XXVIII.    Roman Leaden Coffins Discovered at [Creffield Road] Colchester. By Henry Laver, F.S.A., F.L.S. ... 273
XXIX.   Wentworth of Gosfield, Co. Essex. Addenda.  By W. L. Rutton ... 278 
XXX.     A Short Chapter in the History of the Descent of the Manor of Horham. By H. W. King ... 281 
XXXI.   Guild of the Holy Trinity, Saffron Walden ... 285
XXXII. Excerpts from Ancient Wills. No. 5 [Richard Hagis, Rector of Laindon, dated 1494; James Beeton, Rector of Bulphan and Chantry Priest of Laindon, proved 1518]. By H. W. King … 287 
Annual General Meeting at Ingatestone, 12th August, 1886 … 304 
Annual General Meeting at Dunmow, 12th August, 1887... 305 
Meeting at Barking, 21st October, 1887 ... 307 
Meeting at the Town Hall, Maldon, 30th May, 1888 ... 308 
Annual General Meeting at the Museum, Chelmsford, 9th August, 1888  ... 309 
Meeting at Coggeshall, 19th October, 1888 ... 310 
Report Read at the Annual General Meeting, at Chelmsford, 9th August, 1888  ... 312 
Summary of Proceedings at Council Meetings ... 313 
Donations to the Society ... 314 

New Series Volumes 4 and 5 do not appear to have been digitised elsewhere.

Wednesday, 28 November 2012

Book for Review: The 1953 Essex Flood Disaster

The Society Library Committee has just received this book for review: 'The 1953 Essex Flood Disaster - The People's Story' by Patricia Rennoldson Smith.  (History Press, 2012. £12.99.)

It is published to coincide with the Great Tide (as the title of another book by Hilda Grieve put it) in which 53 people died on low-lying Canvey Island when their homes were engulfed in the early hours of 1 February 1953.  The event is particularly remembered in Essex - the 40th and 50th anniversary of the disaster being commemorated with a Memorial Service at Chelmsford Cathedral, and documentaries on BBC Essex. The review of this book will follow in due course in our Newsletter.  

The Library Committee is always pleased to receive relevant books for review (in our 'Newsletter' or 'Transactions') and onward accession to the Society's Library at the Colchester campus of the University of Essex. 

Tuesday, 27 November 2012

Transactions Transcriptions: 'Old Series' Volume 4

All Saints, Stock
Timber bell tower
Transactions transcriptions – Part 2

To increase our online presence, one of the goals of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History is to provide more information on the many thousands of pages of articles which have been produced over its 160 year history.  Online contents lists and indexes do not exist at the present time but other external sites have downloaded text and facsimile copies.  Although digitisation is not prefect it is better than no thing!.  So to plagiarise back our own work – now out of copyright – the following is available.

Transactions. Old Series Volume 4
Text only version
Online copy

Contents 
I.               Ancient Wills (No. 5) [Thomas D’Arcy, 1486] by H W King … 1
Corrigendum  … 24 
II.             The Descent of the Manor of Horham, and of the Family of Cutts, by H. W. King ... 25 
An Abstract of the Lord Cutts, his Debts given in by his Majesty's command, March 17th , 1698 ... 42 
Pedigree of the Family of Cutts v. Cutte of Horham and Arkesden Co, Essex, by G. H. Rogers-Harrison F.S.A., Windsor Herald ... 43 
III.           The Ancestry and Descent of the Rev. Philip Morant, the Essex Historian, by G. H. Rogers-Harrison F.S.A., Windsor Herald ... 48 
IV.          Notice of a Wall Painting lately exposed in West Ham Church, with some Notes on recent alterations effected there, by the Rev. R H Clutterbuck ... 45 
V.            Report on the Excavation of a Roman House at Colchester, by Josiah Parish ... 53 
Further Report on ditto ... 67 
Errata to Ancient Wills ... 62 
VI.          On some of the Artistic Features of the Essex Cottages, by the Rev. E S Corrie ... 63 
VII.        Notes of Recent Excavations at Hadleigh Castle, by H. W. King ... 70 
VIII.      A Description of St. John's Church, Clacton Magna, by Edward C Hakewell ... 82 
IX.           Timber Work in Churches ... 89
Antiquities recently discovered in the County ... 120 
X.             On Old Houses, with reference to some Examples in the Neighbourhood, by the Rev. C Lesingham Smith M.A. … 121 
XI.           On the Brass of Sir William Fitz Ralph, c. 1323, in Pebmarsh Church, Essex, By John Piggot, Jun. ... 132 
XII.         Notes on the Polychromatic Decoration of Churches, with special reference to a Wall Painting discovered in Ingatestone Church. By John Piggot, Jun. ... 137 
XIII.       Memoir of the Roman Remains, and Discoveries made, at Fitzjohns, Great Canfield By Mrs. Maryon Wilson ... 144 
XIV.      Ancient Wills (No. 6.) [Henry, Lord Marney, Layer Marney, 1523], by H. W. King ... 147 
XV.        Ancient Wills (No. 7.) [Rev. Samuel Purcas, Ludgate, 1626 – Thaxted connection], by H. W. King ... 164 
A Sketch of the Genealogy of the Purchas Family . ... 183 
Annual General Meeting at Great Dunmow, 30th July, 1867 … 184
XVI.      Essex Families and Nomenclature in New England, by Colonel Joseph Lemuel Chester ... 189 
XVII.    Inventories of Church Goods, 6th Edw. VI., by H. W. King ... 197 
XVIII.  Report of a Lecture on Hedingham Castle, by J H Parker … 235 
XIX.       On the Plan of Hedingham Castle, as disclosed by recent Excavations, and compared with a survey made in 1592, by Lewis A. Majendie ... 240 
Key to the Plan of Excavations of Hedingham Castle … 240
XX.         Letter of Miles Corbet the Regicide, dated from the Tower of London, 18th of April, 1662, the day before his Execution, and addressed to his Son, John Corbet, by H. W. King ... 244 
XXI.       Ornamental Fruit Trenchers inscribed with Posies ... 253 
XXII.     Notes on Sepulchral Remains found at Colchester … 257 
Annual General Meeting at Brentwood, 28th July, 1868 ... 269 
Special General Meeting at Hedingham Castle, 29th August, 1868 … 272 
Recent Archaeological Researches ... 276 
Antiquities recently discovered in the County ... 279 

Digitised copies of ‘Transactions’ Old Series, Volume 5, and ‘New Series’ Volumes 1 & 2 do not appear to have been published online.  

Monday, 26 November 2012

Stondon Massey Church: Transactions n.s. Volume 10 Part 2

Pages from 'Transactions'.  Stondon Massey Church by Revd. E H L Reeve, published by the Essex Archaeological Society in 1907.

If you have read this item please contact us with your comments.  Would you like to see more of these extracts on ESAH160?




Sunday, 25 November 2012

ESAH Sunday Series: Dedham stories

Dr. Grimwood, headmaster of Dedham School,
thought to be by John Constable, painted
early in his career. 

Extracts from Edward Henry Lisle Reeve's Commonplace Book.
Dedham Stories
Antics at Dedham School

There is a good story told of Dr Grimwood the head master of Dedham School towards the close of the last [eighteenth] century.  He had heard complaints from his housekeeper that some of the boys had invented a most ingenious way of getting at the apples which she always kept – safely as she had hoped – under lock and key.  They would let down a small schoolfellow in a basket into the room by the chimney; and at a given signal from him, which he gave when the basket was loaded, they would pull up the golden store into the light of day.  When a sufficient quantity of fruit had been thus brought up from the mine, the boy himself would resume his seat in the basket and they would pull him up again to share in the repast which he had so materially assisted in obtaining.  The Dr, on hearing of this device, secreted himself one day in the apple chamber and waited for the event.  Soon a rumbling was heard in the chimney, and the basket steadily and surely descended with the small boy, whose dismay on seeing the Doctor may be more readily surmised than described.  Dr Grimwood in a stern voice bade him to be perfectly quiet, and informed him that he (the Doctor) himself would take the place of the apples on this occasion, and ordered the boy, after the delay allowed for loading the basket, to call to his comrades outside to pull up their booty as he was wont to do.  The Dr seated himself in the basket, the boy called as of yore that all was ready, and in obedience to a hearty tug on the basket its occupant was speedily in mid air and plunged into the darkness of the chimney.  On the boys pulled, with a will for they had felt that there was a larger share than usual of the good things, and we doubt not that they were considering what should be the need of the young adventurer for so faithfully executing the object to descent when suddenly, as they watched for the rosy cheeked apple to issue forth from the chimney top, to their dismay, they caught sight of the doctor’s wig and with a shriek they let go the rope, and the old gentleman was precipitated to his place of starting.

(Doubtless it was a warning to the boys, but what a shaking for the doctor!  And as he dropped hard upon the floor; so, no doubt, he dropped hard upon the boys when he did meet them again.)

A propos of school-masters, boys, and apples, there is a story of a boy who was caught by his master clambering over the wall dividing the playground from the master’s orchard, evidently with his mind intent on apples.  “Where are you going to, boy?” cried the Dr. in sonorous and awful tones.  “Back again, Sir”, replied the ready juvenile.

Mr Mules

Mr Mules of Dedham is a celebrity about whom volumes might be written.  Suffice it to say of his personal appearance that he was of any height you please over 6ft 4in, and broad across the chest in proportion.  Had you ever had the fortune to have been within a mile or so of him you would have remembered him with awe, for his voice would have probably have stunned you.  Not that it was disagreeable – it was melodious as a bell.  It was the terror as it was the admiration of the surrounding neighbourhood. 

He married a baronet’s widow – Lady Pilkington – and during the minority of her three daughters led the life of a true born Briton.  Mr Mules was formerly in medical practice at Dedham, and attended Sir E Pilkington in his last illness.  He kept two packs of hounds, and was the life of the district.

His vast proportions and dimensions while they raised him physically seem no less to have raised him mentally above his fellow men – at any rate in his own estimation.  One of his laments was that he was “surrounded by asses” an expression which has since become proverbial.  He walked about with an immense black stick, as thick as one’s arm, and was usually accompanied by a huge black dog. 

There is a story related to him which goes far to show his insight into human nature.  His garden was one night robbed of some of its choicest peas by some unknown hand, and over these the gardener, as was natural, made long and bitter lamentation.  No clue however could be found as to the thief, and time wore on.  One fine day the gardener again made his appearance to say that, as bad luck would have it, some plums had vanished as suddenly and as mysteriously as the peas.  Now, curiously enough, as on the day of the departure of the peas, there was to be a dinner party that evening, and Mr Mules began to smell a rat.  “That same rascal”, he said, “that stole the peas stole the plums also”.  And, looking at his watch, he gave the man warning to be off the premises in half-an-hour.

Out of the mouths of babes

It is related of Charles Manning of Dedham – neighbours of Capt. Reeve and his family were the Mannings – that he went out to dine somewhere with his mother when a small boy.  His master would seem to have been dilating upon the peculiarities of the people they were likely to meet with more freedom than judgement, for she was somewhat confused when, in the middle of the repast, her progeny turned to her and said, “Mamma, Mr Waly’s nose is not nearly as big as you said it was”. (Enfant terrible! Ed.)

Mr Constable

Mr Constable – brother of the renowned Suffolk artist [John Constable (1776 - 1837)] – though uneducated, and without the advantages of that celebrity yet shared his native talent, and it would show itself some times in his giving vent to sentiments and expressions a little out of the common.  One of his nieces complained that her little dog was always breaking loose from his chain and getting away, sometimes even following her to Church.  “Some-how or other he won’t be tied up” she said.  “If you hand him to me”, said the old gentleman, “I would tie him up that his hind legs did not touch the ground”.

Saturday, 24 November 2012

Warner Textile Archive

On Monday I attended the launch of the Wendy Bray wallpaper collection in Grosvenor Street.  The event was associated with the Warner Textile Archive at Braintree.  The website is www.warnertextilearchive.co.uk, where details of, and access to the collection, may be viewed.  The archive is the country's  second largest collection of flat textiles and is of international significance in  the history of design.

ESAH Publications: 'Essex Archaeology & History' (Transactions) Volumes 31-40

Looking for an unusual Christmas present?

'Essex Archaeology and History', the annual publication of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History, is available from our Online Bookshop

Contents of Series 3, Volumes 31-40, priced £14.00 (including P&P UK) are as follows: 



Essex Archaeology and History: Volume 40 (2009)

Contents
Grant of Arms to the Society:  Thomas Woodcock, Norray and Ulster King of Arms
Paul William Jex Buxton:  Michael Leach
David T-D Clarke:  G Mark R Davies
Nancy Raymonde Edwards (nee Briggs):  H Martin Stuchfield
West Thurrock: Late prehistoric settlement, Roman burials and the medieval manor house, Channel Tunnel Rail Link excavations 2002:  Phil Andrews
Iron Age and early Roman settlement at the former Rainham Squash and Snooker club: excavation 2004:  Alexandra Grassam
Excavations at Southern Slopes, on land at Rectory Close, Colchester:  Peter Boyer
Balkerne Heights, Colchester: Roman suburban development and cemetery use:  Vaughan Birbeck
Roman and medieval Remains at 83 High Street, Great Dunmow:  Phillippa Sparrow
An archaeological excavation at Claret Hall, Ashden
A Hedingham Ware kiln at Great Bardfield:  Kate Orr and Howard Brooks
Sir John Harlestone: ‘... a most remarkable and eminent man in his time’:  Geoffrey Carter
Archaeology in Essex 2008:  Alison Bennett
Historic Buildings and church notes and surveys 2008:  David Andrews
Shorter note
Rural activity in Early Roman Romford:  Jonathon Butler and Kevin Rielly
Book Reviews
Essex Bibliography

Essex Archaeology and History: Volume 39 (2008)

Contents
William Raymond Powell:  H Martin Stuchfield
Kenneth Hall:  Victor Gray
Ambrose James Fawn:  G Mark R Davies
The Rounds of Witham during the First World War and ‘Cousin John Horace Round’:  Thomas McIver and the late W Raymond Powell
The archaeology of the A133 Little Clacton to Weeley by-pass:  Alec Wade and Richard Havis
A Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age enclosure and an early Anglo-Saxon cremation cemetery at the Chalet site, Hall Road, Heybridge:  Andrew A S Newton
A Roman Road and an Iron Age and Romano-British Settlement in The Rodings:   Peter Sharp
The Old Slaughterhouse, Stour Street, Manningtree:  Phillippa Sparrow
The East and Middle Saxon estates of Westminster Abbey:  James Kemble
The Wheel of Fortune and the Bohun Family in the early fourteenth century:  Jennifer Ward
Archaeology in Essex 2007
Shorter notes
Roman remains of 145-145a Moulsham Street, Chelmsford:  Andrew Robertson and Joyce Compton
Medieval activity at land to the rear of 32 High Street, Kelvedon
Medieval and post-medieval quarrying, tanning and domestic activity at 96 North Street, Barking:  Pip Stone and Mike Lully
Book review
Essex Bibliography

Essex Archaeology and History: Volume 38 (2007)

Contents
Excavations of Mesolithic and Neolithic flint scatters and accompanying environmental sequences at Tank Hill Road, Purfleet, 2002:  Matt Leivers, Catherine Barnett (nee Chisham) & Phil Harding
Prehistoric and medieval remains at 20-22 London Road, Maldon: excavations, 2003 and 2004:  Andrew Robertson
Evidence of Roman agricultural drainage: excavation south of the former A120, Takeley, 2003:  Ben Roberts
A Roman cemetery at Sampford Road, Thaxted:  D Stansbie, K Brady, E Biddulph & A Norton
Roman deposits at Lynmouth Gardens / Parkway, Chelmsford; excavations, 2003:  Kate Nicholson & Ben Roberts
Excavations at the former Shell Garage site, 84-88 Moulsham Street, Chelmsford:  Leonora O’Brien with Ben Roberts
Excavations at the former Dovercourt Motors site, Spital Road, Maldon, 2002:  Ben Roberts
A pyramid seal matrix of Sir John Marney (1402-c.1471):  John Ashdown-Hill
The history of chimneys in Essex:  Pat Ryan
Location? Location? Location?: place, patronage and meaning of the wall painting of ‘Jonah and the whale’ at Waltham Abbey:  Natalie Mears
Grist to the mill: a history of Wivenhoe Mill from 1086 to the mid-twentieth century:  Pat Marsden
The archaeology of a siege: Camulodunum reconsidered:  John Mabbitt
Archaeology in Essex 2006:  Alison Bennett & Richard Havis
Shorter Notes
A Late Iron Age and early Roman site at Coleman’s Farm, Rivenhall End:  Mike Roy
An Anglo-Saxon silver strap-end from High Easter:  Michael J Caddeford
An early medieval hanging bowl mount from Good Easter:  Michael J Caddeford
Excavations at Hadleigh Castle, 2004:  Trevor Ennis & Mike Roy
Post-medieval remains at chapel of St-Thomas-a-Becket, Brentwood, archaeological investigations, 1997:  Richard Havis
A study in Georgian Colchester, 12 & 13 St Botolph’s Street:  Philip J Wise
Book reviews

Essex Archaeology and History: Volume 37 (2006)

Contents
Coinage and territoriality in Iron Age Essex and Suffolk:  Mark Curteis
A Late Iron Age and Roman enclosure at Great Notley:  Howard Brooks
Roman and Medieval land-use in the upper Roding valley: excavations at Frogs Hall Borrow Pit, Takeley 2002:  Trevor Ennis
Roman and early medieval bricks and tiles: can they be distinguished? :  Peter Minter, John F Porter & Pat Ryan
A medieval detached kitchen at Little Braxted Hall:  Richard Bond, John Walker & David Andrews
Education in eighteenth-century Colchester 1700-1815:  David Tomlinson
The first Parish Councils and the agricultural labourers of Essex:  Ted Woodgate
Archaeology in Essex 2005:  Richard Havis (ed.)
Church miscellany:  David Andrews (ed.)
Historic buildings notes and surveys:  David Andrews (ed.)
Shorter notes
Prehistoric and medieval activity on the gravel terrace at East Ham:  Chris Mayo
Evidence for a medieval farmstead at Takeley:  Chris Mayo
Medieval activity south of Bonnington’s Farm , Takeley:  Bruno Barber
A Swedish observer in Essex in 1748:  John McCann
Industrial housing in Essex:  Tony Crosby, Adam Garwood & Adrian Corder-Birch
Book reviews
Essex bibliography

Essex Archaeology and History: Volume 36 (2005)

Contents
Archaeological fieldwalking in Essex 1986-2005:  Maria Medlycott
Archaeology on mid-Essex clay: investigations on the A130 by-pass:  Ruarigh Dale, David Maynard & Joyce Compton
A Bronze Age, Roman and Saxon site at Bishops Park College, Jaywick Lane, Clacton-on-Sea:  Andy Letch
A Roman cemetery at Great Dunmow:  Leonora O’Brien
The Portable Antiquities Scheme: a small selection of finds from Essex from August 2003 to December 2005:  Caroline McDonald
A geological review of some early Essex quoins:  John F Potter
A Norman Government of Essex 1066-1154:  W Raymond Powell
Excavations at Church Lane / Church Street, Dagenham:  David Bowsher
A late medieval site at Great Garlands Farm, Stanford-le-Hope, and other archaeological work on the Coryton-Mucking pipeline:   Mark Peachey & Ruarigh Dale
Archaeology in 2004:  Alison Bennett (ed.)
Church Miscellany:  D D Andrews (ed.)
Historic buildings notes and surveys:  D D Andrews (ed.)
Shorter notes
Prehistoric and medieval sites from a pipeline on the western side of the M11:  Richard Havis
A Late Iron Age and early Roman enclosure at Bulls Lodge Quarry, Boreham Airfield:  Joanne Archer & Rachel Clarke
Roman remains at Redbond Lodge, Great Dunmow:  Andrew Robertson
Medieval deposits at 73-74 High Street, Chelmsford: excavations 2000:  Nick Lavender
A ‘magnum fossatum’ at Saffron Walden: excavations at Elm Grove, Goul Lane 2001:  Trevor Ennis
Sible Hedingham, St Peter. The vestry and medieval floor discovered in it:  D D Andrews
‘Yesterday my lord of Gloucester came to Colchester … ‘:  John Ashdown-Hill
Book reviews
Essex bibliography

Essex Archaeology and History: Volume 35 (2004)

Contents
Late Roman buildings at Bishop’s House, Great Chesterford: excavations 1999:  Adam Garwood
Rivenhall revisited: further excavations in the churchyard of St Mary and All Saints 1999:  Rachel Clarke
Nether Hall: A fortified manor of the Wars of the Roses:  D D Andrews
Wallasea Island: the history and archaeology of a marshland landscape:  Ellen Heppell
‘All condition of life and labour’: the presence of Black people in Essex before 1950:  David Killingray
Football and footballers in Essex before the First World War: Gentlemen or scoundrels?:  Paul Rusiecki
Archaeology in Essex 2003:  Alison Bennett & Mike Roy (ed.)
Work of ECC archaeological service 2003:  Sally Gale (ed.)
Historic buildings and church notes and surveys:  D D Andrews (ed.)
Shorter notes
Flintwork from Mill Farm, Brightlingsea:  R N E Barton
A rare discoidal flint knife from the Blackwater estuary:  H Martingell & R Larner
A prehistoric site at Hall Farm, Little Bentley:  N J Lavender & M Germany
A Middle Iron Age red hill at Tollesbury Creek, Tollesbury:  M Germany
A131 Great Leighs by-pass archaeological investigations 1993-2002:  N J Lavender
Brinson revisited: emergency ditch recording at Roman Great Chesterford:  M Peachy
Excavations at Mark Hall School, Harlow:  Andrew Robertson
Recent finds from Essex reported to Colchester Museums 2001-2002:  Philip J Wise
A medieval ceramic culinary mould from Mill Green, near Ingatestone:  Helen Walker
The death of Edward V – new evidence from Colchester:  John Ashdown-Hill
Late medieval and post-medieval remains at the former St John’s ambulance shop, Park Street, Thaxted:  Mike Roy
Finds from a well behind 2 High Street, Kelvedon:  Helen Walker
A tower at Fingringhoe:  John McCann
Book reviews
Obituary: Herbert Hope Lockwood:  Kenneth Neale

Essex Archaeology and History: Volume 34 (2003)

Contents
Two Late Bronze Age hoards from south-east Essex:  Ken Crowe
A Late Bronze Age site at Springfield Park, Chelmsford:  Andrew Manning & Chris Moore
A Late Iron Age settlement at Cressing:  John Hope
Late Iron Age / early Roman and early medieval activity in the Lea valley at Chingford:  Barry Bishop
Richard Lord Rich’s mansion at Rochford Hall:  D D Andrews
Excavations at St Mary Magdalen’s hospital, Brook Street, Colchester:  Carl Crossan
The place-name element ‘beorg’ and other mounds in Essex:  James Kemble
A life of true conversations?: the career of Nehemiah Rogers 1618-1660:  Maria Egan
Myth, mystery and martyrdom: Colchester 1648:  Barbara Donagen
Thomas Edward’s Essex: evaluating Gangraena:  Ann Hughes
Women in the marketplace in early modern Essex:  Amanda Flather
Treasure in heaven? The social status of Essex Clergymen 1670-1790, as revealed through their wills:  Jane Pearson
Rayner Taylor (1747-1825), Chelmsford’s first organist:  Olive Baldwin & Thelma Wilson
Historic building conservation in Essex:  Peter Richards
Shorter notes
A shafthole adze from Starlings Green, Clavering:  Hazel Martingell
Archaeology in Essex 2002:  Alison Bennett (ed.)
Work of the ECC archaeological service 2002:  Sally Gale (ed.)
Church miscellany:  D D Andrews (ed.)
Historic buildings notes and surveys:  D D Andrews (ed.)
Book reviews
Essex bibliography
American theses on the history of Essex

Essex Archaeology and History: Volume 33 (2002)

Contents
Obituary: Frank Sainsbury B.E.M., A.L.A. (1915-2001)
Jousting at windmills.  The Essex Cropmark Enclosures Project:  N Brown & M Germany
A Bronze Age and Saxon occupation site at Frog Hall Farm, Fingringhoe:  H Brooks
The north-western town defences of Kelvedon.  Excavations of an Iron Age and Roman site on land to the rear of Lawson Villas, Kelvedon:  T Ennis & S Foreman
Excavations at 97-99 High Street, Braintree:  A Pearson
A Roman site behind Flacks Hotel, 103-5 High Street, Braintree:  S Hickling
A Roman site at Marlborough Road, Braintree:  Maria Medlycott
A Roman agricultural landscape at the Old Golf Course site, Mill Hill, Braintree:  R Humphrey
A late Iron Age and Romano-British farmstead at Ship Lane, Aveley:  S Foreman & D Maynard
Barkingwic?  Saxon and medieval features adjacent to Barking Abbey: G Hull
A moated manor at Low Hall, Walthamstow:  I Blair
Saffron Walden: the topography of the southern half of the town and marketplace:  D D Andrews, C Mundy & Helen Walker
Cloth seals and other metal-detecting finds from Saffron Walden:  T Carter, G Egan & Maria Medlycott
Maidens’ garlands.  An Essex example of ancient church folklore:  Gareth Spriggs, J A Spriggs & Sarah Spriggs
An 18th-centiury assemblage from a well in Castle Hedingham:  Helen Walker, Pat Ryan & D D Andrews
Charity and the economy of the poor in an Essex parish: Canewdon in the early modern period:  K Crowe
Combination and control: cultural politics in the management of Friendly Societies in 19th-century Essex and Suffolk:  D Appleby
The Brooks maltings (Dalgety site), Mistley:  Amber Patrick
Kier Hardie in West Ham: ‘A constituency with a past’:  W R Powell
Shorter notes:
A Roman stone mould from Colchester:  Caroline McDonald & P Wise
A Roman pottery group from Canvey Island:  J Hedges & T S Martin
Contour survey of Mount Bures Castle:  Rachel Clarke
Late 17th-century apothecary vessels from 108-110 The Grove, Stratford:  J Leary & C Jarrett
Recent finds from Essex reported to Colchester Museums, 1998-2000:  P Wise
Archaeology in Essex 2001:  ed Alison Burnett
Historic buildings notes and surveys: ed D D Andrews
Church miscellany:  ed D D Andrews
Work of the Essex County Council Archaeological Services:  ed Sally Gale
Book reviews
Essex bibliography

Essex Archaeology and History: Volume 32 (2001)

Contents
Obituaries
Our triple Jubilee: the Essex Archaeological Society 1852-2002:  W R Powell
Prehistoric settlement and burials at Elms Farm, Heybridge:  M Atkinson & S Preston
Beaker burial, Late Iron Age and Roman features: observation and excavation at Elm Park, Ardleigh, 1994-1996:  Howard Brooks
The Bronze Age enclosure at Springfield Lyons in its landscape context:  Nigel Brown
Excavation of an Iron Age and Roman site at The Star and Fleece Hotel, Kelvedon:  David Fell & Ron Humphrey
St Mary and All Saints Church, Rivenhall. An analysis of the historic fabric:  A Letch
Joan de Bohun, Countess of Hereford, Essex and Northampton, c.1370-1419: family land and social networks:  Jennifer Ward
Helions Farm, Helions Bumpstead:  Trevor Ennis
A medieval octagonal chimney stack: evidence from Pleshey and Writtle:  N P Wickendon
Fieldwalking at Crondon Park, Stock:  Mark Germany
The desmesne lands and parks of Sir Henry Maynard in 1594:  J M Hunter
The precinct and buildings of Tilty Abbey:  Jackie Hall & David Stracham
Unnecessary persons? Maimed soldiers and war widows in Essex 1642-1662:  David Appleby
Ladies’ boarding schools in Essex c.1791-1861. Two case studies – Billericay and Maldon:  Fiona Bengtsen
‘A Venture of Faith’: the building of a school in Stow Maries:  Beryl A Board
Shorter notes
Two unusual flaked flint axes:  Hazel Martingell
A field axe or adze from Cressing:  Edward Biddulph
Excavations at Great Chesterford churchyard:  D Gadd
A Roman site at Saffron Walden:  D Fell & R Humphrey
A Roman site at Radwinter:  R Havis
An Ipswich-type Ware vessel from Althorne Creek:  Helen Walker
Chiswick Hall moated site, Chrishall:  Jon Murray
On dating from clay pipe stems found in Maldon:  Bill Clark
The Harwich Crane:  D D Andrews & B J Crouch
Archaeology in Essex 2000:  A Bennett (ed.)
Historic buildings notes and surveys:  D D Andrews (ed.)
Church miscellany:  D D Andrews (ed.)
The work of the Essex County Council Archaeology Service, 2000:  Sally Gale (ed).
Book reviews
Essex bibliography

Essex Archaeology and History: Volume 31 (2000)

Contents
A Late Bronze Age hoard from High Easter:  M J Cuddleford & P R Sealey
Excavations on the Hatfield Heath to Matching Tye rising main, north-west Essex:  E B A Guttman
Prehistoric, Roman and post-medieval material from Harlow: investigations at Church Langley 1989-1994:  M Medlycott
Late Iron Age and Roman sites at Grenville Road and College Road, Braintree:  A Garwood & N J Lavender
Excavations at 79 Hythe Hill, Colchester 1994-1995:  Howard Brooks
A Saxon inter-tidal timber fish weir in Collins Creek in the Blackwater estuary:  R L Hall & C P Clarke
The medieval manors of Maldon:  W R Powell
St Thomas Becket’s sisters and other studies:  The late J Horace Round, revised and completed by W R Powell
Church dedications in Colchester archdeaconry:  Janet Cooper
‘The Master of Little Braxted in his prime’: Ernest Geldart and Essex 1873-1900:  James Bettley
Work of the Essex County Council Archaeology Service, 1999:  Sally Gale (ed.)
Archaeology in Essex 1999:  A Bennett
Historic Buildings Notes and Surveys 1999:  D D Andrews (ed.)
Church Miscellany 1999:  D D Andrews (ed.)
Shorter Notes
A flint axe from Bradfield:  Philip Wise
Late Bronze Age activity at South Ockendon:  Helenka Jurglewicz & David Maynard
Marshland-inland relationships in Roman Essex sheep, salt-licks and seasonal salters:  P M Barford
Possible Saxon burials at Hatfield Peverel:  Katherine Reidy & David Maynard
A medieval oven at Grays, Thurrock: excavations at the Stifford County primary school, Parker Road 1995-1996:  Damien Bowen & Stuart Gibson
The probable site of Pleshey Old Church located:  M J Cuddleford & Peter Cott
Medieval remains at Parsonage Farm, Wimbish:  D A G Gadd
Martello Tower ‘C’, Lion Point, Jaywick:  Dave Went
Book Reviews
Essex Bibliography

Greensted Church: Transactions n.s. Volume 10 Part 2























Pages from 'Transactions', published in 1907. Greensted Church by Henry Laver.

Have you accessed this page and found it helpful? Please tell us.

Friday, 23 November 2012

ESAH Forum: Essex History Events

Ingatestone Hall
Essex History Events

On Saturday 1 December 2012 at 7.00pm, the Friends of Historic Essex are holding a Christmas Concert at Ingatestone Hall.  The music will be performed by Song Cycle.  For more information go to the Essex Record Office blog.  (We have yet to sing the praises of the Essex Record Office and the Friends of Historic Essex, but will do soon.)





Thursday 6 December 2012.  Dr Neil Younger will be giving The 2012 Dudley White Local History Lecture at the University of Essex.  7.00pm. Lecture Theatre 2.  Members of the public are very welcome. 

The Essex Record Office is closed for its annual stock-taking exercise from Monday 26 November to Saturday 8 December.  The searchroom will be open to the public again from Monday 10 December 2012.

Thursday, 22 November 2012

Transactions Transcriptions: 'Old Series' Volumes 1, 2 & 3

St Mary's Church, Great Parndon
(now Harlow 'New Town')

Transactions transcriptions – Part 1

To increase our online presence, one of the goals of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History is to provide more information on the many thousands of pages of articles which have been produced over its 160 year history. 

Looking elsewhere on the internet, Google has downloaded facsimile copies of the original, first, series of Transactions, which are extremely rare to find in hard copy form.   This is because, as Michael Leach records in the Newsletter (Summer 2012), there was a “disastrous fire in the early hours of 10 December 1873 which destroyed the Society’s entire stock at the High Street printing works of Benham & Harrison. One letter noted ‘but for the military, and the wind being in the right quarter, the whole High Street [Colchester] would have been consumed’.  All the woodcut blocks, plates and ‘the Society’s MSS’ were destroyed, together with all remaining copies of Wright’s History of Essex. J H Marsden’s account of the collection of Greek and Roman sculpture at Felix Hall, published by the Society in 1863, was also consumed. The fire put an end to the Society’s plan to reprint volume I, part i [of the ‘New Series’], presumably because the lost blocks and plates would have been prohibitively expensive to replace.”

Major Libraries hold copies of the ‘Old Series’ of Transactions, including our own Society Library at the Albert Sloman Library of the University of Essex and the Essex Record Office.  Colchester Public Library used to have a complete run on view.

It is therefore gratifying to see these old volumes available digitally. There were five volumes in the ‘Old Series’. Google books has facsimile copies of the first three volumes which can be downloaded free of charge.


Transactions. Old Series. Volumes 1 & 2
These date from the beginning of the Essex Archaeological Society


Volume I
Contents
I.               General Report of the Proceedings of the Inaugural Meeting, Dec 14 1852 … 1
II.             Inaugural Lecture on Archaeology, by Professor [John Howard] Marden, B.D.[Disney Professor of Archaeology, and late Fellow of St John’s College, in the University of Cambridge; and Rector of Great Oakley, Essex] … 6
III.           The History and Description of the Walls of Colchester, by Dr P M Duncan … 26
IV.          On Roman Remains lately Discovered at Chelmsford, by Mr Frederick Chancellor … 59
V.            Sketch of a Paper on a Colchester Sphynx [Sphinx], compared with two others found in Hungary, by Dr William Bell … 64
VI.          Frescoes Discovered in East Ham Church, by Mr George Buckler … 72
VII.        Notes on Hedingham Castle, and the Family of De Vere, Earls of Oxford, by Mr Ashhurst Majendie, F.R.S. … 75
VIII.      Some Notes on the Family of De Vere, by Mr Richard Almack, F.S.A. … 83
IX.           Remarks on the Roman Sepulture of Infants, by the Hon R C Neville, F.S.A. … 89
X.             On a Recently Discovered Monumental Brass, belonging to Bowers Gifford Church, by Mr H W King …. 93
XI.           Roman Remains at Coggeshall, by the Rev Edward L Cutts, B.A. … 99
XII.         Remarks about Round Churches of England, with especial reference to the Church at Little Maplestead, Essex, by Mr George Buckler … 110
XIII.       Curious Extracts from a MS Diary of the time of James II, and William and Mary, by the Rev Edward L Cutts, B.A. … 117
XIV.      Remarks upon a Roman Urn found near the Lexden Road, Colchester, by the Rev Barton Lodge M.A. … 128
XV.        St Nicholas Church, Castle Hedingham, by the Rev Edward L Cutts, B.A. … 133
XVI.      Report of Second General Meeting at Chelmsford, April 19, 1853 … 137
XVII.    Report of Third General Meeting at Castle Hedingham, July 20, 1853 … 139
XVIII.  List of Roman Potters’ Names upon Samian Ware, now in the Collection of the Hon R C Neville, F.S.A., at Audley End … 141
XIX.       Notice of some Ancient Wills of Inhabitants of the County of Essex [Thomas Marler, Kelvedon, proved 1474; John Creke, Hockley, 1547; Robert Camock, Layer Marney, proved 1585; John Smith, Bradwell, 1558; Middle John Whitelocke, Little Totham, 1500], by Mr H W King …. 149
XX.         A Description of some Mural Paintings discovered in Hadleigh Church, by the Rev W E Heygate, M.A. … 161
XXI.       Architectural Account of the Remains of Coggeshall Abbey, by the Rev Edward L Cutts, B.A. … 166
XXII.     On a Semicircular Archway, of the Decorated Period, at St Osyth, by Mr Charles F Hayward … 186
XXIII.   Notes on Roman Essex, by the Hon R C Neville, F.S.A., President … 191
XXIV.  Remarks on Ancient Seals found at Rivenhall, Ashingdon, Stebbing, Coggeshall, and Colchester: with Notices of some others pertaining to the County of Essex, by Mr H W King ... 201
XXV.    The Roman Cloaca at Colchester: its Discovery and Description, by Dr P M Duncan … 210
Objects of the Society … i
Rules … ii
List of Council … iii
List of Members … iv
Queries and Directions … vii


Volume 2
Out of Stock
Contents
I.                    The architecture and early church at Waltham Abbey Church, by Edward A. Freeman … 1
II.                  Notes upon some Plans and Drawings Illustrative of the Antiquities of the Abbey and Town of Waltham Abbey, by Edmund Littler … 41
III.                Roman Antiquities, in Bronze and Silver, found at Colchester and Marks Tey, now preserved in the Collection of Joseph Mayer, Esq., F.S.A., &c. &c. at Liverpool, by H W King … 56
IV.                Note on the Date of Dedication of Waltham Abbey Church, by W Stubbs, M.A. … 59
V.                  Ancient and Medieval Finger Rings discovered in the County of Essex, by Lord Braybrooke, P.E.A.S., F.S.A. … 61
VI.                Notes on the Roman Remains found at Billericay, and of a Stone Coffin (supposed to be Roman) found at Rettenden [Rettendon], by Edmund Roberts … 69
VII.              The Danish Camps at Bemfleet [Benfleet] and Shoebury, and the Battle of Ashingdon, by the Rev. W E Heygate, M.A. … 75
VIII.            Hadleigh Castle, by H W King … 82
IX.                The Early History of Stratford and the Surrounding Villages, by a Member of the Society … 93
X.                  East Ham Church: an Architectural Description; with Notices of the Principal Sepulchral Monuments, by H W King … 102
XI.                Some Account of the Abbey of West Ham, otherwise Stratford Langthorne, by R Hawley Clutterbuck … 112
XII.              Notes on the Registers of the Parish of Barking, by H W King … 122
XIII.            Eastbury Hall, by Edward L Cutts, B.A. … 134
XIV.            James Strangman, Esq., of Hadleigh, an eminent Essex Antiquary of the time of Queen Elizabeth and James I, by H W King … 139
XV.              The Morant and Astle MSS, and other Historical and Topographical Collections relating to Essex, by H W King … 147
XVI.            Additional Note on the Mural Paintings discovered at Hadleigh Church, by H W King … 155
XVII.          On the Churches of North West Essex, by the Rev. J H Sperling … 157
XVIII.        Note on the Name of the Town of Saffron Walden, by Joseph Clarke … 164
XIX.            Notice of a Wooden Effigy of a Priest in the Church at Little Leighs, by the Rev. F Spurrell … 167
XX.              The East Saxon Dialect, by the Rev. John Mountney Jephson … 173
XXI.            Original Documents … 189
XXII.          Architecture of Chelmsford Church, by F Chancellor … 195
XXIII.        Extracts from an Old Chelmsford Parish Account Book, extending from 1557, the last year of Queen Mary, down to 1668, by Archdeacon Mildmay … 211
XXIV.        The Dunmow Parish Accounts [from the year 1526], by Lewis A Majendie … 229
XXV.          Discovery of British and Roman Remains at North Ockenden [Ockendon] at White Notley … 238


Transactions Old Series. Volume 3


Contents
I.                    Pedigrees of Marney … 1
II.                  Architectural Notes on Layer Marney Hall, Essex; and the Parish Church Adjoining, by Charles Forster Hayward … 16
III.                A Letter, containing Further Particulars in further illustration of the Early History of Waltham Abbey, by Sir Henry Ellis, K.H. … 33
IV.                The Influence of the County of Essex on the Settlement and Family History of New England, by Colonel Joseph Lemuel Chester … 37
V.                  The Church of St Nicholas, Little Coggeshall, by the Rev. W J Dampier … 48
VI.                Ancients Wills (No. 2) [John Smith, Blackmore, 1543], by H W King … 53
VII.              The Shaksperes [Shakespeares] of Essex, by Augustus Charles Veley … 64
Pedigree of Shaksperes of Stratford on Avon
Pedigree of Shaksperes of Essex
VIII.            Ancient Wills (No. 3) [Sir ThomasTyrell, Herongate, 1476], by H W King … 75
IX.                The Strongman Pedigree, by H W King … 95
X.                  Roman Sepruchral Remains at East Ham, read at the Meeting at Leytonstone, held February 16th 1864, by the Rev. E F Boyle … 104
XI.                Comparative Notes on the Roman Sacrophragus and Leaden Coffins discovered at East Ham, by H W King … 110
The Strangman Pedigree – Addendum … 116
XII.              A Translation of the First Book of Palladius on Husbondrie [Husbandry], Edited from a M.S. of the 15th Century, by Barton Lodge, A.M. … 117
Corrigenda to ditto … 162
Glossary to ditto … 163
XIII.            Ancient Wills (No. 4) [Sir Thomas Montgomery, Faulkbourne, 1494], by H W King … 167
XIV.            The Tyrell Badge, by H W King … 198
XV.              Notes on the Monumental Brass Effigy in Great Parndon Church, by George H Rogers Harrison, F.S.A. … 204